Unusual Neuroendocrine Differentiation in a Small Round Cell Angiosarcoma: A Potential Histologic Mimicker of Superficial Ewing Sarcoma

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Neuroendocrine differentiation or aberrant expression of neuroendocrine markers is very uncommon in angiosarcomas (AS) and creates a challenging differential diagnosis with other superficial or soft tissue tumors. Herein, we report a new case of superficial AS presenting as a tumor lesion on the little finger of the right hand of a 52-year-old man. The tumor displayed CD56, chromogranin-A, and synaptophysin immunoreactivity. Tumor cells were positive for vascular markers (CD31, FLI1, ERG, D2-40, VE-cadherin, VEGR1,2, and 3), CD99, and EMA, but were negative for S100, CK (AE1/AE3), CK20, polyomavirus, and myogenic (desmin and myogenin) and melanocyte markers (melan-A and HMB45). Ki67 immunostains indicated high proliferative activity (>50%). The whole-body computed tomography did not reveal distant disease. The initial assessment considered several tumor subtypes as possible histological diagnoses, including Ewing sarcoma, Ewing-like sarcoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, and undifferentiated “small round cell sarcoma”. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis was negative for EWSR1 translocation and molecular analysis failed to detect any EWSR1, CIC, SYT or BCOR rearrangement. As a follow-up investigation, we tested 17 cutaneous/superficial AS for neuroendocrine markers; however, only one of these showed focal CD56 and synaptophysin expression. In conclusion, the present findings indicate that neuroendocrine differentiation is a very infrequent feature in AS. We report an AS of the finger with an uncommon histological appearance and immunohistochemical profile: predominant round cell tumor proliferation and neuroendocrine differentiation. Pathologists should be aware of these potential histological and immunohistochemical pitfalls in AS.

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