Granulomatous Rosacea Versus Lupus Miliaris Disseminatus Faciei—2 Faces of Facial Granulomatous Disorder: A Clinicohistological and Molecular Study

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Abstract

Granulomatous rosacea (GR) and lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei (LMDF) are 2 forms of facial granulomatous diseases. Although they show some morphological overlap, they have distinct clinical presentation. This study was performed to demonstrate the clinical and histological features of GR and LMDF and to establish their relationship to tuberculous etiology by molecular technique. All the cases of GR (n = 20) and LMDF (n = 10) diagnosed on skin biopsy over the past 6 years were reviewed along with their clinical detail. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using primers specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The mean age of patients with GR was 45 years 10 months (range 18–75 years) as compared to 33 years 5 months (range 18–57 years) in patients with LMDF. The GR cases comprised 13 men and 7 women patients, whereas all 10 LMDF cases were seen in men. GR cases had papular lesion over an erythematous base on face, whereas LMDF cases had papular/nodular/nodulocystic lesions on the face and neck. Histologically, GR cases showed small granulomas without necrosis in a background of variable lymphoid infiltrate and dilated capillaries, whereas LMDF showed large granulomas with caseous necrosis and minimal inflammation. Five cases (25%) of GR showed degenerating Demodex folliculorum mites. No case of GR or LMDF showed positivity for mycobacterial polymerase chain reaction. Despite some similarities, GR and LMDF show distinct clinical and histological features. Thus, LMDF is a distinct clinicopathological entity separate from the GR, with different etiopathogenesis. However, none of the conditions are related to a tuberculous etiology.

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