Intranasal midazolam therapy for pediatric status epilepticus☆

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Prolonged seizure activity in a child is a frightening experience for families as well as care providers. Because duration of seizure activity impacts morbidity and mortality, effective methods for seizure control should be instituted as soon as possible, preferably at home. Unfortunately, parenteral methods of medication delivery are not available to most caregivers and rectal diazepam, the most commonly used home therapy, is expensive and often ineffective. This brief review article examines recent research suggesting that there is a better way to treat pediatric seizures in situations where no intravenous access is immediately available. Intranasal midazolam, which delivers antiepileptic medication directly to the blood and cerebrospinal fluid via the nasal mucosa, is safe, inexpensive, easy to learn by parents and paramedics, and provides better seizure control than rectal diazepam.

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