Acute cardiopulmonary distress in pregnancy always carries exceptionally arduous challenge for physicians. Here we report a patient who sustained spontaneous chordae tendineae rupture complicated with severe mitral regurgitation and acute pulmonary edema during peripartum period. Probable causes of chordae tendineae rupture include mitral valve prolapse, infectious endocarditis, congenital heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, ischemic heart disease, connective tissue diseases, previous mitral valve surgery or pregnancy itself. The pathophysiology of spontaneous chordae tendineae rupture due to pregnancy remains unclear. However, certain physiological stress, including hormone changes related matrix remodeling, increased cardiac output during pregnancy or labor pain may precipitate to this condition. Literature reviews from previously reported cases showed that those who were diagnosed chordae tendineae rupture at very preterm period all had preterm delivery.