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Using a two-dimensional ultrasound-guided approach does not guarantee success during the first attempt at internal jugular vein cannulation. Our randomized, parallel simulation study examined whether a new disposable device could improve the success rate of the first attempt at ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein cannulation of a simulated internal jugular vein.Eighty-eight participants were randomized to perform needle insertion for internal jugular vein cannulation of a phantom using the ultrasound-guided approach with (case group) or without (control group) this new device. The primary outcome was the success rate of the first attempt. The secondary outcome was the frequency of mechanical complications such as arterial puncture and posterior wall puncture, procedure time, and level of difficulty.Among 44 participants using the device, 33 (75.0%) achieved successful cannulation on the first attempt. However, only 12 (27.3%) of the 44 participants not using the device recorded success during the first attempt (risk difference, 0.477; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.294–0.661; P < 0.001). The number of attempts was significantly lower (risk difference, −3.955; 95% CI, −5.014 to −3.712; P < 0.001) when participants performed cannulation with the device (1.63 ± 1.71) than without the device (5.59 ± 5.78). Our study also showed that participants were comfortable when performing the ultrasound-guided approach with the new device (risk difference, −1.955; 95% CI, −2.016 to −1.493; P < 0.0001).The new disposable device was effective for successful first attempts at needle insertion during ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein cannulation. Future clinical trials are needed to assess the effectiveness of this device.