Evaluation for occult sepsis incorporating NIRS and emergency sonography

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We aim to determine whether the combination of regional tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) measurement using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), inferior vena cava (IVC) collapsibility and ejection fraction (EF) is able to detect occult sepsis.


We included adult patients in the emergency department with at least one of the following: fever; any one component of the quick sepsis-related organ function assessment (SOFA) score; heart rate ≥ 100 beats per minute; or white cell count <4.0 × 109/L or >12.0 × 109/L. StO2 parameters, IVC collapsibility and EF were assessed.


Primary outcome was composite of admission to intensive care unit, hypotension requiring fluid resuscitation or vasopressor use, and antibiotic escalation.


We included 184 patients with mean age of 55.4 years and slight male predominance (51.6%). Increase in temperature (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16 to 8.02), higher white cell counts (aOR 1.10; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.19), increase in time taken to new StO2 baseline (aOR 1.03; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.06) and reduced EF (aOR 33.9; 95% CI 2.19 to 523.64) had higher odds of achieving the primary outcome.


Change in StO2 and time taken to reach new StO2 baseline, combined with EF could potentially predict sepsis among patients with infection.

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