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Sodium bicarbonate administration is mostly restricted to in-hospital use in Taiwan. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of sodium bicarbonate on outcomes among patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).This population-based study used a 16-year database to analyze the association between sodium bicarbonate administration for resuscitation in the emergency department (ED) and outcomes. All adult patients with OHCA were identified through diagnostic and procedure codes. The primary outcome was survival to hospital admission and secondary outcome was the rate of death within the first 30 days of incidence of cardiac arrest. Cox proportional-hazards regression, logistic regression, and propensity analyses were conducted.Among 5589 total OHCA patients, 15.1% (844) had survival to hospital admission. For all patients, a positive association was noted between sodium bicarbonate administration during resuscitation in the ED and survival to hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 4.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.82–5.22, p < 0.001). In propensity-matched patients, a positive association was also noted (adjusted OR, 4.61; 95% CI: 3.90–5.46, p < 0.001).Among patients with OHCA in Taiwan, administration of sodium bicarbonate during ED resuscitation was significantly associated with an increased rate of survival to hospital admission.