A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a population-based inception cohort of 1,157 Olmsted County, Minnesota, women with infertility (failure to conceive after 1 year despite intercourse without contraception) that was first diagnosed at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minnesota) between 1935 and 1964. In this relatively young cohort, 31 hip fractures were observed during 35,849 person-years of follow-up; 36.5 had been expected (standardized incidence ratio = 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.58-1.20). Standardized incidence ratios did not differ by type or cause of infertility. The data suggested that women with consistently irregular menses may have a greater risk of hip fracture. This finding should be confirmed by additional studies with longer follow-up periods and with assessment of other fracture outcomes.