Evidence from epidemiologic and experimental studies suggests that use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduces risk of colon and breast cancer. The association between use of aspirin and other NSAIDs and risk of adult glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was evaluated among 236 incident GBM cases and 401 population-based controls frequency-matched on age, gender, and ethnicity from the San Francisco Bay Area Adult Glioma Study. Cases (or proxies) and controls were interviewed in person between May 1997 and August 2000. Cases with self-reported GBM reported less use of at least 600 pills of all types of NSAIDs combined during the 10-year prediagnostic period than did controls (odds ratio (OR)=0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.3, 0.8). Findings were consistent for aspirin (OR=0.51, 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8), ibuprofen (OR=0.41, 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8), and naproxen/other NSAIDs (OR=0.34, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.8). GBM cases also reported less use of acetaminophen than did controls (OR=0.51, 95% CI: 0.3, 1.0). Eliminating participants who initiated NSAID use within 2 years of diagnosis yielded similar results. These findings show an inverse association between NSAID use and GBM. Further studies are warranted to determine whether NSAIDs might be effective in the inhibition of GBM development or progression.