A Prospective Study of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels, Blood Pressure, and Incident Hypertension in Postmenopausal Women

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Abstract

In randomized trials, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure has been equivocal, while most prospective cohort studies have shown that the risk of incident hypertension is lower in people with higher levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). The authors examined the association between levels of 25(OH)D and changes in blood pressure and incident hypertension in 4,863 postmenopausal women recruited into the Women’s Health Initiative between 1993 and 1998. Over 7 years, there were no significant differences in the adjusted mean change in systolic or diastolic blood pressure by quartile of 25(OH)D. The covariate-adjusted risk of incident hypertension was slightly lower in the upper 3 quartiles of 25(OH)D compared with the lowest quartile, but this was statistically significant only in the third quartile (hazard ratio = 0.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.46, 0.96). There was no significant linear or nonlinear trend in the risk of incident hypertension by untransformed or log-transformed continuous values of 25(OH)D. In postmenopausal women in this study, serum levels of 25(OH)D were not related to changes in blood pressure, and evidence for an association with lower risk of incident hypertension was weak.

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