The Canadian Registry on Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Endoscopy (RUGBE): Endoscopic Hemostasis and Proton Pump Inhibition are Associated with Improved Outcomes in a Real-Life Setting

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From the Canadian Registry of patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Endoscopy (RUGBE), we determined clinical outcomes and explored the roles of endoscopic and pharmacologic therapies in a contemporary real-life setting.


Analysis of randomly selected patients endoscoped for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding at 18 community and tertiary care institutions between 1999 and 2002. Covariates and outcomes were defined a priori and 30-day follow-up obtained. Logistic regression models identified predictors of outcomes.


One thousand eight-hundred and sixty-nine patients were included (66 ± 17 yr, 38% female, 2.5 ± 1.6 comorbid conditions, hemoglobin, 96 ± 27 g/L, 54% received a mean of 2.9 ± 1.7 units of blood). Endoscopy was performed within 24 h in 76%, with ulcers (55%) most commonly noted. High-risk endoscopic stigmata and endoscopic therapy were reported in 37%. Rebleeding, surgery, and mortality rates were 14.1%, 6.5%, and 5.4%, respectively. Decreased rebleeding was significantly and independently associated with PPI use (85% of patients, mean daily dose 56 ± 53 mg) in all patients regardless of endoscopic stigmata, (odds ratio (OR):0.53, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI:0.37–0.77) and endoscopic hemostasis in patients with high-risk stigmata (OR:0.39, 95% CI:0.25–0.61). PPI use (OR:0.18, 95% CI:0.04–0.80) and endoscopic therapy (OR:0.31, 95% CI:0.11–0.91) were also each independently associated with decreased mortality in patients with high-risk stigmata.


These results appear to confirm the protective role of endoscopic therapy in patients with high-risk stigmata, and suggest that acute use of PPIs may be associated with a reduction of rebleeding in all patients, and lower mortality in patients with high-risk stigmata. Independent prospective validation of these observational findings is now required.

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