Inflammatory Bowel Disease Characteristics Among African Americans, Hispanics, and Non-Hispanic Whites: Characterization of a Large North American Cohort

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprising primarily of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is increasingly prevalent in racial and ethnic minorities. This study was undertaken to characterize racial differences in disease phenotype in a predominantly adult population.

METHODS

Phenotype data on 830 non-Hispanic white, 127 non-Hispanic African American, and 169 Hispanic IBD patients, recruited from six academic centers, were abstracted from medical records and compiled in the NIDDK-IBD Genetics Consortium repository. We characterized racial differences in family history, disease location and behavior, surgical history, and extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) using standardized definitions.

RESULTS

African American CD patients were more likely than whites to develop esophagogastroduodenal CD (OR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.4–5.5), colorectal disease (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1–3.4), perianal disease (OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.03–2.8), but less likely to have ileal involvement (OR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.32–0.96). They were also at higher risk for uveitis (OR = 5.5; 95% CI: 2.3–13.0) and sacroiliitis (OR = 4.0; 95% CI: 1.55–10.1). Hispanics had higher prevalence of perianal CD (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.8–4.6) and erythema nodosum (3.3; 95% CI: 1.7–6.4). Among UC patients, Hispanics had more proximal disease extent. Both African American and Hispanic CD patients, but not UC patients, had lower prevalences of family history of IBD than their white counterparts.

CONCLUSIONS

There are racial differences in IBD family history, disease location, and EIMs that may reflect underlying genetic variations and have important implications for diagnosis and management of disease. These findings underscore the need for further studies in minority populations.

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