To assess the relationship of multiple domains and facets of the five-factor model of personality with presence, onset, and severity of late-life depression.Design:
Cross-sectional analysis of depression status, and age of onset. Retrospective analysis of baseline severity. Longitudinal analysis of severity after 3 and 12 months of psychiatric treatment.Setting:
Private university-affiliated medical center in the Southeastern United States.Participants:
One hundred twelve psychiatric patients with a current episode of unipolar major depression, and 104 nondepressed comparison subjects, age 60 and older (mean: 70, SD: 6).Measurements:
Revised NEO Personality Inventory, Diagnostic Interview Schedule, and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale.Results:
Binary logistic regression found that depression was related to higher neuroticism (and all its facets) and to lower extraversion (and facets of assertiveness, activity, and positive emotionality) and conscientiousness (and facets of competence, order, dutifulness, and self-discipline). Multinomial logistic regression found some of these relationships held only for depression with onset before age 50 (hostility, self-consciousness, extraversion, assertiveness, positive emotions, order, and dutifulness). Linear regression found that personality was unrelated to depression severity at the beginning of treatment, but improvement after 3 months was related to lower neuroticism (and facets depressiveness and stress-vulnerability) and higher warmth and competence. Improvement after 12 months was related to lower neuroticism, depressiveness, and stress-vulnerability.Conclusions:
Specific personality facets are related with depression and treatment outcomes. Screening for certain personality traits at the start of treatment may help identify patients at risk of worse response to treatment after 3 months.