Impact of a pharmacist-driven protocol to decrease proton pump inhibitor use in non-intensive care hospitalized adults

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Results of a pharmacist-driven protocol to decrease proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use in non-intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalized adults are presented.


This concurrent preintervention and postintervention study included subjects at least 18 years of age receiving PPIs while hospitalized in general medical or surgical beds. Patients were identified for inclusion in the postintervention group using a daily list of hospitalized patients with active PPI orders. A pharmacist evaluated these subjects for PPI appropriateness, and then recommended discontinuing or changing PPIs to histamine H2-receptor antagonists. Per protocol, the pharmacist could change PPIs to H2-antagonists if prescribers did not respond to recommendations. Preintervention group patients were gathered retrospectively and treated as the retrospective control group. Patients were excluded if they had cumulative ICU or ICU step-down stays of at least two days, had predefined appropriate indications for PPIs, or were not evaluated within one day of PPI orders. The primary outcome was the rate of PPI use. Secondary objectives included rates of prescriber acceptance of pharmacist recommendations and hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infections (HO-CDI).


PPIs were discontinued in 66.0% (n = 62) of postintervention group patients compared to 41.1% (n = 39) of the preintervention group (absolute risk reduction, 24.9%; p = 0.001). In the postintervention group, 31.9% (n = 30) of recommendations were accepted, whereas 11.7% (n = 11) were rejected. No subjects in either group were diagnosed with HO-CDI during the study period.


The pharmacist-driven protocol described in this study decreased PPI use in non-ICU hospitalized adults.

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