This study aimed to examine the role of diagnosis in health-care utilization patterns after hospice enrollment. Using 2007 National Home and Hospice Care Survey data from hospice patients with heart failure (n = 311) and cancer (n = 946), we analyzed emergency service use and discharge to hospital via logistic regression pre- and postpropensity score matching. Prematching, patients with heart failure had twice the odds of emergency services use than patients with cancer (P < .001) and twice the odds of discharge to hospital (P = .02). Differences were reduced postmatching for emergency service use (odds ratio [OR]: 1.6, P = .05) and eliminated for discharge to hospital (OR: 1.32, P = .45). Health-care utilization correlates included diagnosis, place of care, and advance directives. Attention to the unique needs of patients with heart failure is needed, along with improved advanced care planning.