What Parenteral Opioids to Use in Face of Shortages of Morphine, Hydromorphone, and Fentanyl

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Abstract

Parenteral potent opioid availability is becoming an issue in acute pain management. Two opioids, nalbuphine and buprenorphine, are available which can be substituted for hydromorphone, fentanyl, and morphine. There are advantages and disadvantages in using these 2 opioids which are discussed, and potential dosing strategies are outlined.

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