Intensive care unit-acquired infections in a tertiary care hospital: An epidemiologic survey and influence on patient outcomes

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Background and objective:

Nosocomial infections are common in intensive care units (ICUs), but the pattern of infections and the distribution of microorganisms vary. We studied the ICU-acquired infections and their effect on patient outcomes in our ICU.


Patients admitted to our ICU for >48 hours were studied prospectively over a year. Infections were diagnosed based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. Antibiotics were administered based on culture and sensitivity. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to determine the factors associated with infection.


One hundred ninety-eight patients were studied. The crude infection rate was 50% with ventilator-associated pneumonia (40%) and bloodstream infection (21%) being the most common. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most common microorganisms. More than 90% of patients received antibiotics, the most common being β lactam-β lactamase inhibitors, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and carbapenems. Thirty-five percent of staphylococci were methicillin-resistant, 50% of Enterococcus strains were vancomycin-resistant, and 68% of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex, 47% of Pseudomonas strains, and 35% of Klebsiella strains were multidrug-resistant. A longer duration of ventilation was associated with infection. The overall ICU mortality rate was 24% and was similar in patients with or without infection.


The incidence of infection and the multidrug resistance in the ICU was high. Infection was associated with duration of ventilation but not mortality.

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