The first point prevalence survey of health care–associated infection and antimicrobial use in a Japanese university hospital: A pilot study

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Abstract

Background:

Point prevalence surveys (PPSs) in Japanese hospitals have not yet been reported. The purpose of this pilot PPS study was to evaluate the epidemiology of health care–associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial use in a Japanese tertiary university hospital.

Methods:

A 1-day, cross-sectional PPS was performed at a Japanese university hospital. Data on demographics, active HAIs, and antimicrobial use of all inpatients were collected using a data collection form.

Results:

Of 841 patients, 85 (10.1%) had 90 active HAIs, and 308 patients (36.6%) were administered 494 antimicrobials. Among the 90 HAIs and 58 pathogens, the most frequent infection and isolated pathogen were pneumonia (20.0%) and Enterobacteriaceae (27.6%), respectively. Of the 118 antimicrobials used for treatment of HAIs, carbapenems were the most frequently administered category of antimicrobials (22.9%). In regard to antimicrobials for surgical prophylaxis, 37 of 119 (31.1%) were administered to patients on postoperative day 3 or later, and 48 of 119 (40.3%) were administered orally.

Conclusions:

The incidence of HAIs is higher than in other developed countries. The social and medical situation in Japan may affect patient demographics, active HAIs, and antimicrobial use. Multicenter PPSs are necessary to uncover the real epidemiology of HAIs and antimicrobial use in Japan.

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