Several clusters of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections associated with contaminated endoscopes have recently been reported. Interim guidelines for mitigating endoscope-associated transmission have been proposed, but there has not been a systematic appraisal of CRE prevention practices.Methods
We conducted a systematic review of endoscope-associated CRE infection episodes, abstracting information on outbreak detection, mitigation, outcomes, and corrective steps taken to prevent recurrence.Results
Seven distinct outbreaks were identified in the published literature, and 5 of these were associated with duodenal endoscopy, with the remaining 2 associated with cystoscopy and ureteroscopy. Several investigators noted difficulties in cleaning protocols surrounding difficult to access components, such as the elevator on duodenoscopes. The published investigations did not report any failures of sterilization. It is unclear if routine reprocessing was ineffective, or difficult to execute properly.Conclusions
Meticulous cleaning protocols and increased surveillance are necessary to prevent and detect future outbreaks of CRE and to determine whether more stringent measures, such as sterilization, are needed for duodenoscopes.