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Pharmacist-driven antimicrobial stewardship was a protect factor for mortality.The strategy had a lower rate of the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms.The strategy optimised antimicrobial use in ICUs in China.The strategy need a large-scale implementation in ICUs in China.Antimicrobial stewardship programs, particularly pharmacist-driven programs, help reduce the unnecessary use of antimicrobial agents. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of pharmacist-driven antimicrobial stewardship on antimicrobial use, multidrug resistance, and patient outcomes in adult intensive care units in China.We conducted a multicenter prospective cohort study with a sample of 577 patients. A total of 353 patients were included under a pharmacist-driven antimicrobial stewardship program, whereas the remaining 224 patients served as controls. The primary outcome was all-cause hospital mortality.The pharmacist-driven antimicrobial stewardship program had a lower hospital mortality rate compared with the nonpharmacist program (19.3% vs 29.0%; P = .007). Furthermore, logistic regression analysis indicated that the pharmacist-driven program independently predicted hospital mortality (odds ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.91; P = .017) after adjustment. Meanwhile, this strategy had a lower rate of multidrug resistance (23.8% vs 31.7%; P = .037). Moreover, the strategy optimized antimicrobial use, such as having a shorter duration of empirical antimicrobial therapy (2.7 days; interquartile range [IQR], 1.7-4.6 vs 3.0; IQR, 1.9-6.2; P = .002) and accumulated duration of antimicrobial treatment (4.0; IQR, 2.0-7.0 vs 5.0; IQR, 3.0-9.5; P = .030).Pharmacist-driven antimicrobial stewardship in an intensive care unit decreased patient mortality and the emergence of multidrug resistance, and optimized antimicrobial agent use.