Characteristics of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureusin patients on admission to a teaching hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


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Abstract

Highlights:Patients were screened for nasal colonization at the time of admission.Of the patients, 25% were colonized by Staphylococcus aureus and 3% by methicillin-resistant S aureus.The USA1100/sequence type (ST) 30 was the predominant methicillin-resistant S aureus lineage followed by USA800/ST5.Only 1 patient from cardiac surgery developed infection.BackgroundInfections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are associated with greater mortality and morbidity; however, risk factors for community-acquired infections caused by MRSA have not been established. Therefore, community patients who are admitted to hospitals without the necessary contact precautions and are infected with community-acquired lineages eventually cause these lineages to spread to these settings. The aim of this study was to detect community-acquired lineages of MRSA in patients on admission to a Brazilian teaching hospital.Methods:The antimicrobial susceptibility of the MRSA isolates from nasal swabs was evaluated as was the molecular characteristics of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). The clonality was determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence type analysis.Results:A total of 702 patients were evaluated between March 2012 and March 2013; 180 (25%) of them were colonized by S aureus, and 21 (3%) were MRSA. The SCCmec IV/USA1100/sequence type (ST) 30 was the predominant MRSA lineage (42.8%), followed by SCCmec IV/USA800/ST5 (23.8%).Conclusions:The occurrence of MRSA colonization was very low, and only 1 patient from cardiac surgery developed an infection, which was caused by an SCCmec II/USA100/ST5 isolate. Screening for MRSA colonization on admission does not seem to be productive; however, for populations submitted to specific surgeries, active surveillance should be implemented.

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