Antimicrobial resistance of 3 types of gram-negative bacteria isolated from hospital surfaces and the hands of health care workers

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There has been an increased focus in recent years on antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from clinical samples. However, resistance of bacteria from hospital environments has been less frequently investigated.


According to hygienic standard for disinfection in hospitals, samples were collected from hospital inanimate surfaces and the hands of health care workers after daily cleaning. An automatic microorganism analyzer was used to identify bacteria and test for antimicrobial susceptibility. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect antimicrobial resistance genes.


The detection rate of bacteria in general wards was significantly higher than that in intensive care units. The isolates were predominantly gram-negative (GN) bacteria, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae being the most common. P aeruginosa isolates from other surfaces were much higher than those from medical instruments. E cloacae was isolated more frequently from the hands of other staff than medical staff. Most P aeruginosa and K pneumoniae were resistant to sulfonamides and β-lactam antimicrobials. Only 1 strain of P aeruginosa and 1 strain of K pneumoniae showed multiple antimicrobials resistance.


The GN bacteria isolated from hospital environments demonstrate variable resistance to antimicrobials.

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