Dynamics of intraoperativeKlebsiella,Acinetobacter,Pseudomonas, andEnterobactertransmission

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Abstract

Background:

Our primary objective was to examine anesthesia work area reservoir isolation of Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter spp (KAPE) pathogens. This is a retrospective analysis of a randomized, prospective, and observational study involving 3 academic medical centers.

Methods:

Patients included adults undergoing general anesthesia. Gram-negative isolates (N = 2,682) were collected from anesthesia work area reservoirs in 274 randomly selected operating room case pairs. Nine hundred and forty-five isolates were included in this study. Chi square tests were used to examine the association of anesthesia work area reservoirs with KAPE genera isolation.

Results:

Acinetobacter pathogens were more likely to be isolated from anesthesia provider hands (risk ratio [RR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.10; corrected P = .004) and less likely to be isolated from patients (RR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.08-0.50; corrected P < .0001). Enterobacter pathogens were more likely to be isolated from patients (RR, 3.34; 95% CI, 1.92-5.81; corrected P = 0.001) and less likely to be isolated from provider hands (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.97; corrected P = .007).

Conclusions:

Anesthesia provider hands are important reservoirs for Acinetobacter spp, whereas patient skin surfaces are key reservoirs for Enterobacter spp. Future work should examine the impact of a multimodal program in controlling the intraoperative spread of Acinetobacter and Enterobacter pathogens.

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