The possibility of increases in both oral and anogenital pathologic conditions due to human papillomavirus (HPV) in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is of concern and is the focus of numerous current research studies. HIV-infected women are at higher risk for cervical HPV detection, for infection with high-oncogenic-risk types of HPV, for persistent HPV infection, for cervical cytologic abnormalities, and for cervical intraepithelial neoplasms. HIV-infected men are at increased risk for anal HPV infection, for anal infection with high oncogenic-risk types of HPV, for persistent anal HPV infection, and for anal intraepithelial defects. Recent studies have shown an increased risk of oral warts in HIV-infected individuals despite treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Oral HPV infection rates have not declined since the initiation of HAART, and evidence suggests that the rates may have actually increased in white HIV-infected males.