An Expanded View of Progressive Cardiorenal Disorders

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Abstract

Chronic renal diseases and congestive heart failure are progressive disorders, which cannot be completely controlled by established therapies. It has been argued that intracrine biology involving the formation of self-sustaining intracrine regulatory loops accounts for the progression of these disorders and for the inability of standard therapies to stop disease spread. The renin-angiotensin system is a prime candidate to be involved in any such process, and an amplifying role for mineralocorticoid activation is also consistent with this view. Here, the notion of intracrine participation in congestive heart failure and chronic renal disease is expanded to include consideration of the participation of other intracrines including transforming growth factor beta 1, parathyroid hormone–related protein and vascular endothelial growth factor among others. The possibility that intracrine expression patterns account for disease phenotypes is explored. The therapeutic implications of this view are discussed.

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