The Reduction Rate of Serum Sodium and Mortality in Patients Undergoing Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration for Acute Severe Hypernatremia

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Abstract

Background

The excessive correction of acute hypernatremia is not known to be harmful. This study aimed to evaluate whether a reduction rate of serum sodium (RRSeNa) > 1 mEq/L/hour in acute severe hypernatremia is an independent risk factor for mortality in critically ill patients undergoing continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) treatment.

Materials and Methods

For this retrospective study, we reviewed records of 75 critically ill patients undergoing CVVH treatment for acute severe hypernatremia between March 2011 and March 2015.

Results

The 28-day mortality rate of all patients was 61.3%. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, a reduction rate of serum sodium (RRSeNa) > 1 mEq/L/hour (hazard ratio = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.03-3.47; P = 0.04), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and vasopressor dependency (yes or no) had a statistically significantly effect on mortality. Once we excluded patients with an RRSeNa ≤ 0.5 mEq/L/hour, only RRSeNa > 1 mEq/L/hour (hazard ratio = 2.611; 95% CI: 1.228-5.550; P = 0.013) and vasopressor dependency had a statistically significant influence on mortality in multivariate regression.

Conclusions

In addition to the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and vasopressor dependency, the excessive correction of acute severe hypernatremia was possibly associated with mortality in critically ill patients undergoing CVVH treatment. The optimal reduction rate of acute hypernatremia should be extensively studied in critically ill patients.

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