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Eosinophils are involved in the pathogenesis of a number of lung diseases. Recent advances in eosinophil biology have now produced clinically applicable therapies that seek to counter eosinophilia in blood and lungs. This article reviews the basic biology of eosinophils and their role in mediating T-helper 2 cell responses. The current status of anticytokine therapy for eosinophilic lung disease is discussed. A clinical approach to eosinophilic lung disease based on symptoms and radiography is generated. The clinical significance of persistent eosinophilia in lung transplant patients and patients with asthma will receive special emphasis.