Effect of Chronic Total Occlusion Percutaneous Coronary Intervention on Clinical Outcomes in Elderly Patients

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Abstract

Background:

There are little published data reporting the effect of coronary artery chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on the prognosis of elderly patients with identified CTOs. We sought to evaluate the clinical effect of CTO PCI on the prognosis of elderly patients with CTOs.

Methods:

A total of 445 consecutive patients diagnosed with a CTO by angiography from January 2011 to December 2013 were enrolled. We compared long-term clinical outcomes between the elderly group (≥75 years; n = 120, 27.0%), and the nonelderly group (<75 years; n = 325, 73.0%) as well as between patients with unopened CTOs and patients with CTOs who were recanalized by PCI either during the index hospitalization or at a staged procedure within 30 days after discharge from the index hospitalization. The primary endpoint was defined as the composite of hospitalization from angina, reinfarction, heart failure or repeat revascularization and cardiac death at the 3-year follow-up.

Results:

More elderly CTO patients had left main (LM) disease (25.0 versus 15.1%, P = 0.015), 3-vessel disease (96.4% versus 73.8%, P < 0.001) and a Japan-CTO score ≥2 (36.7% versus 23.7%, P = 0.006) than nonelderly CTO patients. Furthermore, elderly patients had a higher syntax score than nonelderly patients (27.0 [25.0, 30.0] versus 26.0 [23.0, 30.0], P = 0.006). PCI was attempted for 33 out of 135 CTO lesions (24.4%) in the elderly group, and 127 out of 378 lesions (33.6%) in the nonelderly group (P = 0.049); however, there were no statistically significant differences in the CTO PCI success rates between the 2 groups (69.7% versus 82.7%, P = 0.097). The 3-year cardiac mortality rate was 15.0% and 4.6% (P < 0.011) for the elderly and nonelderly groups, respectively. Elderly patients with CTOs who were recanalized by PCI and those with unopened CTOs exhibited comparable 3-year cardiac mortality rates (15.0% versus 16.0%, P = 1.000). There was no significant difference in primary endpoint incidence (25.0% versus 33.0%, P = 0.486). Multivariate analysis revealed that after corrections for baseline and procedural differences, right coronary artery CTO (odds ratio = 4.600, 95% CI: 1.320-16.031; P = 0.017) and LM disease combined with 3-vessel disease (odds ratio = 4.296, 95% CI: 1.166-15.831; P = 0.028) were independent predictors of 3-year cardiac mortality among elderly patients with CTOs.

Conclusions:

Elderly patients with CTOs presented with seriously diseased coronary arteries and poor prognoses. CTO PCI did not seem to significantly improve long-term clinical outcomes among elderly patients with CTOs. Right coronary artery CTO and LM disease combined with 3-vessel disease might be independent predictors of 3-year cardiac mortality in elderly CTO patients.

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