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Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) treatment produces beneficial left ventricular (LV) remodeling in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM). This study addressed the timing of maximal beneficial LV remodeling in NIDCM when adding MRA.We studied 12 patients with NIDCM on stable β-blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor-blocking therapy who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging before and after 6-31 months of continuous MRA therapy.At baseline, the LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was 24% (19-27); median [interquartile range]. The LV end-systolic volume index (LVESVI) was 63 ml (57-76) and the LV stroke volume index (LVSVI) was 19 ml (14-21), all depressed. After adding MRA to the HF regimen, the LVEF increased to 47% (42-52), with a decrease in LVESVI to 36 ml (33-45) and increase in LVSVI to 36 ml (28-39) (for each, P < 0 .0001). Using generalized least squares analysis, the maximal beneficial remodeling (defined by maximal increase in LVEF, the maximal decrease in LVESVI and maximal increase in LVSVI) was achieved after approximately 12-16 months of MRA treatment.Adding MRA to a standard medical regimen for NIDCM resulted in beneficial LV remodeling. The maximal beneficial remodeling was achieved with 12-16 months of MRA therapy. These results have implications for the timing of other advanced therapies, such as placing internal cardioverter-defibrillators.