Whole Exome Sequencing Identified 1 Base Pair Novel Deletion in BCL2-Associated Athanogene 3 (BAG3) Gene Associated with Severe Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) Requiring Heart Transplant in Multiple Family Members

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Abstract

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by dilation and impaired contraction of the left ventricle or both ventricles. Among hereditary DCM, the genetic causes are heterogeneous, and include mutations encoding cytoskeletal, nucleoskeletal, mitochondrial, and calcium-handling proteins. We report three severely affected males, in a four-generation pedigree, with DCM phenotype who underwent cardiac transplant. Cardiomegaly with marked biventricular dilation and fibrosis were noticeable histopathological findings. The affected males had tested negative on a 46-gene pancardiomyopathy panel. Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) was performed to reveal mutation in the gene responsible in generation of DCM phenotypes. The 1-bp (Chr10:121435979delC; c.913delC) novel heterozygous deletion in exon 4 ofBAG3, was identified in three affected males, resulted in frame-shift and a premature termination codon (p.Met306-Stop) producing a truncated BAG3 protein lacking functionally important PXXP and BAG domains. WES data were further utilized to map 10 SNP markers around the discovered mutation to generate shared disease haplotype in all affected individuals encompassing 11 Mb on 10q25.3–26.2 harboringBAG3. Finally genotypes were inferred for the unavailable/deceased individuals in the pedigrees. Here we propose that Chr10:121435979delC inBAG3is a causal mutation in these subjects. Our and earlier studies indicate thatBAG3mutations are associated with DCM phenotypes.BAG3should be added to cardiomyopathy gene panels for screening of DCM patients, and patients previously considered gene elusive should undergo sequencing of theBAG3gene.

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