Family Presence During Resuscitation: Impact of Online Learning on Nurses' Perception and Self-confidence

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Family presence during resuscitation (FPDR) is supported by patients and their family members. Nurses, however, including critical care nurses who frequently implement resuscitative care, have mixed views.


To determine the impact of online learning on critical care nurses' perception of and self-confidence with FPDR.


A 2-group, random assignment, pretest and posttest quasi-experimental study was conducted with critical care nurses recruited nationally. An online learning module on FPDR was developed and administered to the intervention group. Perceptions and self-confidence for FPDR were measured by using the Family Presence Risk-Benefit Scale (FPR-BS) and the Family Presence Self-confidence Scale (FPS-CS). Two-factor, mixed-model factorial analysis of variance was used to compare mean scores.


A total of 74 critical care nurses participated in the study. Mean FPR-BS and FPS-CS scores were significantly greater in the intervention group than in the control group. For the intervention group, mean scores on the FPR-BS increased from 3.63 to 4.07 (P < .001) and on the FPS-CS increased from 4.24 to 4.57 (P < .001), signifying improved perception and self-confidence. Scores did not change significantly in the control group: mean FPR-BS score increased from 3.82 to 3.88 (P = .23) and the mean FPS-CS score of 4.40 did not change (P > .99).


Online learning is a feasible and effective method for educating large numbers of critical care nurses about FPDR. Online learning can improve perceptions and self-confidence related to FPDR, which may promote more widespread adoption of FPDR into practice.

Family presence during resuscitation (FPDR) refers to giving a patient's family member (or members) the option to be present during the resuscitation of a loved one. It is a shift from the traditional practice norm of separating families during resuscitative care and aims to promote family-centered care during acute health crises.1,2 FPDR is supported by 94% to 100% of patients' family members,3-5 and patients and their family members view FPDR as their right.6 FPDR is also supported by multiple professional nursing and interdisciplinary organizations.7-10 Support for this family-centered care practice has mounted because of research that has demonstrated positive outcomes for the patient, the patient's family, and the health care team.

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