Bisphenol A release from orthodontic adhesives measured in vitro and in vivo with gas chromatography

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The objectives of this study were to quantify in vitro the Bisphenol A (BPA) release from 5 orthodontic composites and to assess in vivo the BPA level in patients' saliva and urine after bracket bonding with an orthodontic adhesive system.


For the in-vitro portion of this study, 5 orthodontic composites were evaluated: Eagle Spectrum (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, Wis), Enlight (Ormco, Orange, Calif), Light Bond (Reliance Orthodontic Products, Itasca, Ill), Mono Lok II (Rocky Mountain Orthodontics, Denver, Colo), and Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). Simulating intraoral conditions, the specimens were immersed in a water/ethanol solution, and the BPA (ng.g−1) liberation was measured after 30 minutes, 24 hours, 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month by the gas chromatography system coupled with mass spectrometry. Twenty patients indicated for fixed orthodontic treatment participated in the in-vivo study. Saliva samples were collected before bracket bonding and then 30 minutes, 24 hours, 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after bonding the brackets. Urine samples were collected before bonding and then at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after bonding. The results were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and Tukey posttest, with a significance level of 5%.


All composites evaluated in vitro released small amounts of BPA. Enlight composite showed the greatest release, at 1 month. Regarding the in-vivo study, the mean BPA level in saliva increased significantly only at 30 minutes after bonding in comparison with measurements recorded before bonding.


All orthodontic composites released BPA in vitro. Enlight and Light Bond had, respectively, the highest and lowest BPA releases in vitro. The in-vivo experiment showed that bracket bonding with the Transbond XT orthodontic adhesive system resulted in increased BPA levels in saliva and urine. The levels were significant but still lower than the reference dose for daily ingestion.

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