The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationships between upper airway factors (nasal resistance, adenoids, tonsils, and tongue posture) and maxillofacial forms in Class II and III children.Methods:
Sixty-four subjects (mean age, 9.3 years) with malocclusion were divided into Class II and Class III groups by ANB angles. Nasal resistance was calculated using computational fluid dynamics from cone-beam computed tomography data. Adenoids, tonsils, and tongue posture were evaluated in the cone-beam computed tomography images. The groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U tests and Student t tests. The Spearman rank correlations test assessed the relationships between the upper airway factors and maxillofacial form.Results:
Nasal resistance of the Class II group was significantly larger than that of the Class III group (P = 0.005). Nasal resistance of the Class II group was significantly correlated with inferior tongue posture (P <0.001) and negatively correlated with intermolar width (P = 0.028). Tonsil size of the Class III group was significantly correlated with anterior tongue posture (P <0.001) and mandibular incisor anterior position (P = 0.007). Anterior tongue posture of the Class III group was significantly correlated with mandibular protrusion.Conclusions:
The relationships of upper airway factors differ between Class II and Class III children.