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The aim of this study was to evaluate the distances from the maxillary posterior root apices to the inferior wall of the maxillary sinus using cone-beam computed tomography images and the relationships between roots and maxillary sinus according to age, sex, and skeletal pattern.Three-dimensional images of each root were checked, and the distances were measured along the true vertical axis from the apex of the root to the sinus floor in 118 patients (63 male, 55 female) aged 10 to 28 years. Compare-means statistic tests were done to assess the differences between groups classified according to age, sex, and skeletal pattern.The frequency of root contact with the sinus floor increased from 70% at the second premolar to more than 80% at the buccal roots of the first and second molars. Male and older age (20-28 years) groups had significantly smaller distances or more protrusion of the root into the sinus than female and younger age (10-20 years) groups. The distances were shorter, or there was more protrusion of the root into the sinus in the hyperdivergent, down-canted palatal plane, and large gonial angle groups.Male, older age, hyperdivergent skeletal pattern, and large gonial angle groups had significantly closer distances between maxillary root tips and the sinus floor or more protrusion of the roots into the sinus. The intrusion of the maxillary molars in those situations may be difficult and slow because of the pneumatized maxillary sinus.Distances between posterior tooth roots and sinus floor were measured in CBCT images.More than two thirds of the maxillary posterior roots had contact with sinus floor.Smaller distances were found in males and older groups than in females and younger groups.Smaller distances were found with hyperdivergent facial pattern and large gonial angles.