Long-term changes in oral health-related quality of life of standard, cleft, and surgery patients after orthodontic treatment: A longitudinal study

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The aim of this study was to assess long-term changes and describe the trajectories of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in a cohort of cleft, surgery, and standard patients who received orthodontic treatment.


Standard (n = 16), cleft (n = 19), and orthognathic surgery (n = 22) patients completed the short-form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) before treatment, immediately posttreatment, and approximately 5 years posttreatment.


An overall reduction in OHIP-14 scores (improvement in OHRQoL) occurred after orthodontic treatment; however, this was only significant for the surgery and standard groups (P <0.05). The total OHIP-14 score increased significantly from posttreatment to 5 years follow-up for all 3 study groups (P <0.05). Relative to pretreatment, however, there were significant reductions in total OHIP-14 scores at 5 years posttreatment in the surgery group (−57.4%; P <0.05), but not in the standard sample (−24.2%; P >0.05). By contrast, the OHIP-14 score in the cleft group increased but not significantly (40.2%; P >0.05). Using a mixed model analysis, a significant interaction was detected between patient group and time (ie, study time point) (F = 6.0; P <0.0001), after adjusting for age and sex.


Distinct patient groups showed different OHRQoL trajectories after orthodontic treatment. Treatment-related improvements in OHRQoL are maintained over time for surgery patients, but not for those with standard malocclusions and orofacial clefts.

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