Finite element analysis of slot wall deformation in stainless steel and titanium orthodontic brackets during simulated palatal root torque

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Abstract

Introduction:

Torque applied on anterior teeth is vital for root positioning and stability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the detailed slot wall deformation in stainless steel (SS) and titanium (Ti) edgewise brackets during palatal root torque using finite element analysis.

Methods:

A finite element model was developed from a maxillary central incisor SS bracket (0.022 in). The generated torque values from an SS rectangular archwire (0.019 × 0.025 in) while twisting from 5° to 40° were obtained experimentally by a spine tester, and the calculated torque force was applied in the bracket slot. The deformations of the slot walls in both SS and Ti brackets were measured at various locations.

Results:

There were gradual increases in the deformations of both bracket slot walls from the bottom to top locations. In the SS bracket slot for the 40° twist, the deformations were 9.28, 36.8, and 44.8 μm in the bottom, middle, and top slot wall locations, respectively. Similarly, in the Ti bracket slot for the 40° twist, the deformations were 39.2, 62.4, and 76.2 μm in the bottom, middle, and top slot wall locations, respectively. The elastic limits were reached at 28° for SS and at 37° for Ti.

Conclusions:

Both SS and Ti bracket slots underwent deformation during torque application. There are variations in the deformations at different locations in the slot walls and between the materials.

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