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The purposes of this study were to compare the asymmetry index using panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography for detecting mandibular posterior asymmetry and to evaluate the diagnostic value of the asymmetry index on panoramic radiography.A total of 43 patients were included in this study. Ten mandibular posterior distances were measured using panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography, and 10 asymmetry index values were calculated. The reliability of each asymmetry index was assessed. For evaluating validity of each asymmetry index using panoramic radiography, the paired t test and the Bland-Altman analysis were used. The accuracy of the asymmetry index and the area under the curve of receiver operator characteristic were calculated.The asymmetry index of total ramal height showed good reliability (ICC, >0.888). In condylar height 1, specificity and negative predictive value were low (0.08 and 0.17, respectively), 95% limits of agreement were ±17.9%, and area under the curve was 0.484. In total, ramal height accuracy was 0.86, and areas under the curve were 0.926 to 0.957.For detecting asymmetry of the condyle region, the asymmetry index using panoramic radiography had little diagnostic value, and we recommend using cone-beam computed tomography images. However, the asymmetry index for total ramal height showed good reliability and relatively higher validity, and its diagnostic value was excellent.