Prediction of the occurrence and severity of mandibular incisor crowding in the early mixed dentition using craniofacial parameters

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With the recent interest in esthetics at an early age, prediction of mandibular incisor crowding is of significant importance. Since dental arch development is related to craniofacial growth, we conducted a cohort study to find a regression model for mandibular incisor crowding based on various craniofacial parameters in children.


A total of 250 children, all in the early mixed dentition, were selected randomly by cluster sampling from primary schools. Craniofacial parameters were measured by a caliper bow, and intercanine widths were measured on dental casts. After a 12-month follow-up period, mandibular incisor crowding and intercanine width were assessed on each subject's dental cast. Discriminant and multiple regression analyses were performed separately for boys and girls.


Of 250 children, 148 returned for the 1-year follow-up and met the inclusion criteria. Regression analyses of patients with normal occlusion showed a statistically significant correlation between anterior dental crowding and facial height and bigonial width in both sexes. A significant inverse correlation was found between initial intercanine width and incisor crowding in girls. Furthermore, using the aforementioned parameters, the occurrence of mandibular incisor crowding could be predicted with an accuracy of 92.6%.


We found that the occurrence and severity of mandibular incisor crowding in the early mixed dentition can be predicted accurately based on certain craniofacial parameters.

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