Mandibular condyle bone density in adolescents with varying skeletal patterns evaluated using cone-beam computed tomography: A potential predictive tool

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Abstract

Introduction:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone density of mandibular condyles in adolescents with varying skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography. The null hypothesis was that there is no difference in the bone density of mandibular condyles in adolescents across various facial height ratios, ANB angle classifications, sexes, and age categories.

Methods:

We divided 120 adolescent patients, 56 boys and 64 girls, into 3 groups according to 3 criteria: (1) age (early, 10 to <14 years; middle, 14 to <17 years; late, 17 to <20 years); (2) facial height ratio or Jarabak quotient (hyperdivergent: facial height ratio, <62%; normovergent: facial height ratio, 62% to ≤65%; and hypodivergent: facial height ratio, >65%); and (3) ANB angle classification (Class I, 1° to ≤4°; Class II, (>4°); and Class III, <1°). The total, cortical, and cancellous bone densities were measured and compared on the axial slice with the largest mediolateral diameter of the mandibular condyle using C-mode cone-beam computed tomography.

Results:

Cortical bone density increased as age increased and showed statistically significant differences between the early and middle (P = 0.041) and the early and late adolescent groups (P = 0.031). Condylar bone density increased as facial height ratio decreased, and cancellous bone density showed statistically significant differences between the hyperdivergent and hypodivergent groups (P = 0.038). The cortical, cancellous, and total bone densities increased as ANB angle increased and showed statistically significant differences between the Class II and Class III groups (P = 0.022, P = 0.006, and P = 0.003, respectively).

Conclusions:

The null hypothesis was rejected. Condylar bone density increased as facial height ratio decreased and ANB angle increased. These findings may be useful in predicting the vertical and horizontal skeletal growth patterns of growing adolescents.

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