Cesarean Section Delivery in the 1980s: International Comparison by Indication.

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OBJECTIVEWe compared trends and current levels of cesarean section delivery by indication in four countries to help us understand factors underlying national differences in obstetric delivery practice and identify pathways to lower cesarean rates.STUDY DESIGNWe carried out a measurement of change in the use of cesarean delivery by indication in Norway, Scotland, Sweden, and the United States during intervals centered on 1980, 1985, and 1990. Indication for cesarean delivery was determined by a standard set of selection rules.RESULTSThe rate of growth of national cesarean section rates dropped significantly between the time periods 1980 to 1985 and 1985 to 1990 in all four countries; in Sweden this led to an actual decline in the cesarean section rate. Fetal distress and previous cesarean section were important contributors to cesarean section growth in three of the countries in 1980 to 1985, but their contribution to growth dropped off sharply in 1985 to 1990. By the 1990 interval, the overall rate ranged from 24% (United States) to 11% (Sweden), and all four countries had similar cesarean section rates for breech presentation, featl distress, and "other" indications. Cesarean section deliveries for previous cesarean section and dystocia accounted for the substantially higher U.S. cesarean section rate.CONCLUSIONSCesarean section rates are approaching stability in the four countries and have declined in Sweden. Previous cesarean delivery and dystocia may be the major sources of future reductions in the U.S. cesarean rate. The Swedish example shows that it is possible to reduce a relatively low national cesarean section rate. (Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994;170:495-504.)

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