Adverse outcomes in twin pregnancies complicated by early vaginal bleeding

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We sought to estimate the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with early vaginal bleeding in twin pregnancies.

Study Design

In a retrospective cohort study of consecutive twin pregnancies undergoing anatomic survey, we compared women who reported vaginal bleeding at <22 weeks to those who did not. Exclusion criteria included monoamniotic pregnancies, twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, and placenta previa. Primary outcomes included preeclampsia, abruption, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), preterm birth <34 weeks, and intrauterine growth restriction.


Of 2106 pregnancies meeting inclusion criteria, 175 reported vaginal bleeding. Twin pregnancies with early vaginal bleeding had significantly higher risks of abruption, PPROM, and preterm birth compared to twin pregnancies without bleeding. The findings were similar when twin pairs were stratified by parity or maternal comorbidities.


Twin pregnancies complicated by vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy have an increased risk of abruption, PPROM, and preterm birth <34 weeks.

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