Uterine cellular leiomyomata with chromosome 1p deletions represent a distinct entity

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

This study aimed to determine whether 1p deletion defines a subset of cellular leiomyomata (CL), which is a hypercellular variant of uterine leiomyomata that may have delayed malignant potential, and to correlate this genetic change with clinical and pathologic characteristics including those present in uterine sarcomas.

STUDY DESIGN:

Available CL cases at the Mayo Clinic (n = 101) and variant cases reported in another article (n = 16) were identified. Each case with sufficient tissue that met histologic criteria for CL when reviewed by a single pathologist underwent interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization to determine the presence of 1p deletion. Clinical characteristics of women with confirmed CL were compared on the basis of 1p deletion status using univariate analysis.

RESULTS:

Of the Mayo Clinic cohort of histologically confirmed CL, 23% had deletion of 1p. Women with this subset of CL, when compared to those without 1p deletion, were more likely to be postmenopausal (P = .049) and their uteri tended to be heavier (P = .039) with a larger dominant leiomyoma (P = .030). The pathologic features associated with 1p deletion were high cellularity (P = .036) and hyaline necrosis (P = .047), which remained significant after inclusion of the CL cases from a previously published series.

CONCLUSION:

Deletion of 1p occurs in approximately one-quarter of CL cases. This genetic alteration is potentially associated with clinicopathologic features that are present in uterine sarcomas, which suggests a distinct clinical entity that may have malignant potential. Our findings are particularly pertinent considering the increased preference for uterine-sparing options in leiomyoma treatment, suggesting assessment of 1p deletion status in CL may influence clinical surveillance decisions.

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