The effect of major depression on quality of life after surgery for stress urinary incontinence: a secondary analysis of the Trial of Midurethral Slings

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Abstract

Background

Depression has been associated with symptom amplification, functional impairment, and lower incontinence-specific quality of life in women with urinary incontinence. Although depression has been shown to impact both subjective and objective outcomes after many different surgeries, there are limited data on the effects of major depression on postoperative outcomes after antiincontinence surgery.

Objective

The purpose of this study was to determine whether major depression affects urinary incontinence severity and quality of life after midurethral sling surgery.

Study Design

This was a secondary analysis of the Trial of Midurethral Slings. Participants were assigned randomly either to a retropubic or transobturator sling for stress urinary incontinence. Each was classified as having major depression or not by the validated depression screening Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Pre- and postoperative urinary incontinence severity (which was assessed by the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire), urinary incontinence-specific quality of life (which was assessed by the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire and the Urinary Distress Inventory), and sexual function (which was assessed by the Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire) was compared between groups at baseline and at 12 months.

Results

Five hundred twenty-six patients were included: 79 patients (15%) had major depression before surgery; 447 patients (85%) did not. Baseline incontinence severity was higher in women with major depression than in those without (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire, 14.7 ± 4.1 vs 12.9 ± 4.0; P < .001). Similarly, baseline quality of life and sexual function were worse in depressed women than in nondepressed women (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire, 235.6 ± 95.8 vs 134.8 ± 89.8; P < .001; Urinary Distress Inventory, 162.7 ± 46 vs 128.6 ± 41.3; P < .001; and Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire–12, 27.2 ± 7.3 vs 33.9 ± 6.4; P < .001). After adjustment for differences between groups, baseline major depression did not negatively affect 12-month incontinence severity or quality of life. However, at 12 months after surgery, despite significant improvement in sexual function scores in depressed women, the 12-month scores were still significantly worse in the major depression group (Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire–12, 34.1 ± 7.1 vs 37.7 ± 6.1; P < .001); multivariable analysis showed independent association of baseline major depression with 12-month sexual function. At 12 months, 83% of those women (66/79) with baseline major depression were no longer depressed.

Conclusion

Women with major depression who are planning surgery for stress urinary incontinence have worse quality of life than nondepressed women. However, women with major depression improve significantly more than those without major depression such that, at 12 months postoperatively, incontinence severity and quality of life are not different between groups. Sexual function is worse before and after the operation for depressed women.

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