Trends in hospitalizations of pregnant HIV-infected women in the United States: 2004 through 2011

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With the development and widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected women live longer, healthier lives. Previous research has shown that, since the adoption of combination antiretroviral therapy in the United States, rates of morbidity and adverse obstetric outcomes remained higher for HIV-infected pregnant women compared with HIV-uninfected pregnant women. Monitoring trends in the outcomes these women experience is essential, as recommendations for this special population continue to evolve with the progress of HIV treatment and prevention options.


We conducted an analysis comparing rates of hospitalizations and associated outcomes among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women in the United States from 2004 through 2011.

Study Design

We used cross-sectional hospital discharge data for girls and women age 15–49 from the 2004, 2007, and 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a nationally representative sample of US hospital discharges. Demographic characteristics, morbidity outcomes, and time trends were compared using χ2 tests and multivariate logistic regression. Analyses were weighted to produce national estimates.


In 2011, there were 4751 estimated pregnancy hospitalizations and 3855 delivery hospitalizations for HIV-infected pregnant women; neither increased since 2004. Compared with those of HIV-uninfected women, pregnancy hospitalizations of HIV-infected women were more likely to be longer, be in the South and Northeast, be covered by public insurance, and incur higher charges (all P < .005). Hospitalizations among pregnant women with HIV infection had higher rates for many adverse outcomes. Compared to 2004, hospitalizations of HIV-infected pregnant women in 2011 had higher odds of gestational diabetes (adjusted odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.16–2.84), preeclampsia/hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.12–2.24), viral/mycotic/parasitic infections (adjusted odds ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.69–2.14), and bacterial infections (adjusted odds ratio, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.53–4.20). Bacterial infections did not increase among hospitalizations of HIV-uninfected pregnant women.


The numbers of hospitalizations during pregnancy and delivery have not increased for HIV-infected women since 2004, a departure from previously estimated trends. Pregnancy hospitalizations of HIV-infected women remain more medically complex than those of HIV-uninfected women. An increasing trend in infections among the delivery hospitalizations of HIV-infected pregnant women warrant further attention.

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