Utilization of third-party in vitro fertilization in the United States

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Abstract

Background:

The use of in vitro fertilization that includes third-party in vitro fertilization is increasing. However, the relative contribution of third-party in vitro fertilization that includes the use of donor oocytes, sperm, or embryo and a gestational carrier to the birth cohort after in vitro fertilization is unknown.

Objective:

The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of third-party in vitro fertilization to the in vitro fertilization birth cohort over the past decade.

Study Design:

This retrospective analysis investigated 1,349,874 in vitro fertilization cycles that resulted in 421,525 live births and 549,367 liveborn infants in the United States from 2004–2013. Cycles were self-reported by fertility centers to a national registry: Society for Assisted Reproductive Technologies Clinic Outcome Reporting System.

Results:

Third-party in vitro fertilization accounted for 217,030 (16.1%) of all in vitro fertilization cycles, 86,063 (20.4%) of all live births, and 115,024 (20.9%) of all liveborn infants. Overall, 39.7% of third-party in vitro fertilization cycles resulted in a live birth, compared with 29.6% of autologous in vitro fertilization cycles. Use of third-party in vitro fertilization increased with maternal age and accounted for 42.2% of all in vitro fertilization cycles and 75.3% of all liveborn infants among women >40 years old. Oocyte donation was the most common third-party in vitro fertilization technique, followed by sperm donation. Over the study period, annual cycle volume and live birth rates gradually increased for both autologous in vitro fertilization and third-party in vitro fertilization (P<.0001 for all). Live birth rates were the highest when multiple third-party in vitro fertilization modalities were used, followed by oocyte donation.

Conclusion:

Third-party in vitro fertilization use and efficacy have increased over the past decade, now comprising >20% of the total in vitro fertilization birth cohort. In women who are >40 years old, third-party in vitro fertilization has become the dominant treatment.

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