Cardiac hypertrophy is highly prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Experimental evidence has implied that pregnant women with type 2 diabetes mellitus and their children are at an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Our previous mouse model study revealed that maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus induces structural heart defects in their offspring.OBJECTIVE:
This study aims to determine whether maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus induces embryonic heart hypertrophy in a murine model of diabetic embryopathy.STUDY DESIGN:
The type 2 diabetes mellitus embryopathy model was established by feeding 4-week-old female C57BL/6J mice with a high-fat diet for 15 weeks. Cardiac hypertrophy in embryos at embryonic day 17.5 was characterized by measuring heart size and thickness of the right and left ventricle walls and the interventricular septum, as well as the expression of β-myosin heavy chain, atrial natriuretic peptide, insulin-like growth factor-1, desmin, and adrenomedullin. Cardiac remodeling was determined by collagen synthesis and fibronectin synthesis. Fibrosis was evaluated by Masson staining and determining the expression of connective tissue growth factor, osteopontin, and galectin-3 genes. Cell apoptosis also was measured in the developing heart.RESULTS:
The thicknesses of the left ventricle walls and the interventricular septum of embryonic hearts exposed to maternal diabetes were significantly thicker than those in the nondiabetic group. Maternal diabetes significantly increased β-myosin heavy chain, atrial natriuretic peptide, insulin-like growth factor-1, and desmin expression, but decreased expression of adrenomedullin. Moreover, collagen synthesis was significantly elevated, whereas fibronectin synthesis was suppressed, in embryonic hearts from diabetic dams, suggesting that cardiac remodeling is a contributing factor to cardiac hypertrophy. The cardiac fibrosis marker, galectin-3, was induced by maternal diabetes. Furthermore, maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus activated the proapoptotic c-Jun-N-terminal kinase 1/2 stress signaling and triggered cell apoptosis by increasing the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase 2′-deoxyuridine 5′-triphosphate nick end labeling–positive cells (10.4 ± 2.2% of the type 2 diabetes mellitus group vs 3.8 ± 0.7% of the nondiabetic group, P < .05).CONCLUSION:
Maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus induces cardiac hypertrophy in embryonic hearts. Adverse cardiac remodeling, including elevated collagen synthesis, suppressed fibronectin synthesis, profibrosis, and apoptosis, is implicated as the etiology of cardiac hypertrophy.