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While there is an increasing trend of ovarian conservation at the time of surgical treatment for young women with stage I cervical cancer, the risk for subsequent ovarian cancer after ovarian conservation has not been well studied.We sought to examine the incidence of and risk factors for metachronous ovarian cancer among young women with stage I cervical cancer who had ovarian conservation at the time of hysterectomy.The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program was used to identify women aged <50 years who underwent hysterectomy with ovarian conservation for stage I cervical cancer from 1983 through 2013 (n = 4365). Time-dependent analysis was performed for ovarian cancer risk after cervical cancer diagnosis.Mean age at cervical cancer diagnosis was 37 years, and the majority of patients had stage IA disease (68.2%) and squamous histology (72.9%). Median follow-up time was 10.8 years, and there were 13 women who developed metachronous ovarian cancer. The 10- and 20-year cumulative incidences of metachronous ovarian cancer were 0.2% (95% confidence interval, 0.1–0.4) and 0.5% (95% confidence interval, 0.2–0.8), respectively. Mean age at the time of diagnosis of metachronous ovarian cancer was 47.5 years, and stage III-IV disease was seen in 55.6%. Age (≥45 vs <45 years, hazard ratio, 4.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.16–15.4; P = .018), ethnicity (non-white vs white, hazard ratio, 4.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.31–14.0; P = .009), cervical cancer histology (adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous vs squamous, hazard ratio, 3.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.17–10.5; P = .028), and adjuvant radiotherapy use (yes vs no, hazard ratio, 3.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–13.4; P = .034) were significantly associated with metachronous ovarian cancer risk. The presence of multiple risk factors was associated with a significantly increased risk of metachronous ovarian cancer compared to the no risk factor group: 1 risk factor (hazard ratio range, 2.96-8.43), 2 risk factors (hazard ratio range, 16.6-31.0), and 3-4 risk factors (hazard ratio range, 62.3-109), respectively.Metachronous ovarian cancer risk after ovarian conservation for women with stage I cervical cancer is <1%. Older age, non-white ethnicity, adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous histology, and adjuvant radiotherapy may be associated with an increased metachronous ovarian cancer risk.