Ovarian mass–differentiating benign from malignant: the value of the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis ultrasound rules

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Abstract

Ovarian cancer, the fifth most common cause of cancer death among women, has the highest mortality rate of all gynecologic cancers. General survival rate is <50% but can reach 90% if disease is detected early. Ultrasound is presently the best modality to differentiate between benign and malignant status. The patient with a malignant mass should be referred to an oncology surgeon since results have been shown to be superior to treatment by a specialist. Several ultrasound-based scoring systems exist for assessing the risk of an ovarian tumor to be malignant. The International Ovarian Tumor Analysis group published 2 such systems: the ultrasound Simple Rules and the Assessment of Different NEoplasias in the adneXa model. The Simple Rules classifies a tumor as benign, malignant, or indeterminate and the Assessment of Different NEoplasias in the adneXa model determines the risk for a tumor to be benign or malignant and, if malignant, the risk of various stages. Sensitivity of the Simple Rules and Assessment of Different NEoplasias in the adneXa model (using a cut-off of 10% to predict malignancy) are 92% and 96.5%, respectively, and specificities are 96% and 71.3%, respectively. These models are the best predictive tests for the preoperative classification of adnexal tumors. Their intent is to help the specialist make management decisions when faced with a patient with a persistent ovarian mass. The models are simple, are easy to use, and have been validated in multiple reports but not in the United States. We suggest they should be validated and widely introduced into medical practice in the United States.

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