Familial and acquired erythrocytosis and thrombocytosis are characterized by myeloid lineage hyperproliferation, which is either single or multi-lineage in origin. The single lineage disorders exhibit Mendelian inheritance with polyclonal hematopoiesis and often arise from a single genetic defect. In contrast, the multi-lineage disorders exhibit complex patterns of inheritance with multi-genetic origins and clonal hematopoiesis. They have the potential to acquire JAK2 somatic mutations, but this is not the primary event. Identification of the disease-causing genes will enable better classification of familial and acquired erythrocytosis and thrombocytosis. Furthermore, it will provide an insight into the mechanisms regulating myeloid cell proliferation.