Predictors of Antihypertensive Drug Responses: Initial Data from a Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Cross-Over Study With Four Antihypertensive Drugs (The GENRES Study)*

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Abstract

Background:

Only a minority of hypertensive individuals is adequately controlled for their hypertension, partially because reliable predictors for efficient antihypertensive drug therapy are lacking.

Methods:

In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study (The GENRES Study), 208 moderately hypertensive Finnish men (aged 35 to 60 years) were treated for 4 weeks with antihypertensive drugs from four different classes: amlodipine (5 mg), bisoprolol (5 mg), hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg), or losartan (50 mg) daily. Each individual received each of the four monotherapies in a randomized order. Four-week placebo periods were included before and between drug treatment periods. Antihypertensive responses were assessed with 24-h ambulatory and office measurements and analyzed according to age, body mass index, triceps skin fold thickness, waist-to-hip ratio, duration of hypertension, number of previous antihypertensive drugs, number of affected parents, and blood pressure (BP) levels, and profiles during placebo periods.

Results:

The median BP responses in 24-h ambulatory recordings (systolic/diastolic) were 11/8 mm Hg for bisoprolol, 9/6 mm Hg for losartan, 7/5 mm Hg for amlodipine, and 5/2 mm Hg for hydrochlorothiazide. The highest pairwise within-subject correlations in BP responses were seen for the combinations of bisoprolol-losartan and amlodipine-hydrochlorothiazide. The BP responses to bisoprolol and losartan did not vary according to the variables. Amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide responses were positively correlated with age, placebo BP level, and lower night-time dipping on placebo.

Conclusions:

Baseline clinical and BP parameters may be used to predict the efficacy of antihypertensive therapies. The GENRES Study material should provide an excellent platform for future pharmacogenetic analyses of antihypertensive drug responsiveness. Am J Hypertens 2007;20: 311-318 © 2007 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd.

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